The scientists believe that with a help of physical exercises we can spend from 2000 to 3000 kilocalories a week. Most of all calories are burnt by jogging, skiing, rowing, rope jumping and sport rhythmical dance. Less calories – by tennis (especially small), swimming, volleyball, badminton, roller skating. For an hour of slow jogging we spend 700 kilocalories – it means that you should visit race track three times a week and train for an hour.
Below we cite some data of calorie consumption by activities during half an hour (person’s average weight is 65kg.)
badminton – 175
jogging – 300
golf – 125
cycle racing – 330
rowing – 420
windsurfing – 250
canoe rowing – 115
water skis – 240
roller skating – 200
volleyball – 175
swimming – 175
rope jumping – 400
skittles – 135
surf-riding – 250
equestrian – 175
squash rackets – 300
cricket – 120
tennis – 220
athletics (running) – 450
fencing – 150
skiing – 300
walking – 175
table tennis – 180
field hockey- 250
sailing – 200
Jogging and walking
Among physical exercises jogging is the most powerful, universal and natural way of recovery. Jogging, by good intension and duration, has a beneficial impact on cardiovascular system, muscular system, respiratory apparatus and metabolism.
The cholesterol level in blood is decreased and the liver function is improved proportionate to jogging duration. Jogging not only protects from atherosclerosis, but helps by cancer precautions and its treatment. At that, the earlier are started running exercises the more resistant is body to cancer diseases.
The New York Academy of Sciences admitted jogging as the best way of overweight reduction. Three hours of running a week are equal to daily hunger with a body weight loss. Dr Pollock specifies, in order to grow thin, you should train at least three times a week for 30 minutes with heart rate 60-80 from highest possible, spending 300 kilocalories for one exercise. Ten or twenty-minute jogging will give you nothing except of pain and exhaustion.
Take notice that regular jogging slows down ageing process to 10-20 years. There was an interesting inscription on the rock in Ancient Greece 2500 years ago: “If you want to be strong – run; if you want to be healthy – run; if you want to be clever – run!“
How much should we run to be healthy?
Cardiologists advise to run 30-40 kilometers a week. E. Milner considers, 60-80 kilometers a week – it is a maximal load. By bigger loads there is a risk of musculoskeletal traumas. Jogging once a week is even unhealthy, less than three times a week is ineffective. Therapists give some recommendations to beginners: two kilometers a day is enough. They warns that it cannot be allowed to rapid pulse more than 150 beats per minute. Young and healthy people have double pulse, elderly – higher than 50-70%. Some of them advice in order to gain maximum courage and health, it is desirable to run every day 15-20 minutes to 3-4 kilometers, trying put the leg on the ground with a whole foot on the heel.
In any case you should start train gradually. G. Gilmor writes, for untrained runner five minutes around the house is a sufficient time for a start. A. Mikulin is more cautious: at first day walk 10 fast steps, then bend arms at elbows and run 5-10 steps. Arthur Lydiard advises to stay always within yourself and never run with younger and stronger amateurs. The Academician N. Amosov has a single meaning: « If up to now you do not die with your diseases and paunch, so you can wait with recovery of good shape – only gradation.
Dr. Cooper, the famous American scientist, has proposed a control system for a number of physical activities. He called the system of exercises – aerobics («aerobic» means «with oxygen»). These exercises promote increased oxygen consumption by human body. They also give health-improving effect. The simplicity and availability of these exercises allow people of different ages use aerobic system. The carefully developed tables and tests give a chance to control independently the level of your physical preparation.
And now there are some tips before start.
– Aged up to 30. You can start trainings if you have done examination within a year and doctor did not find any contraindications.
– From 30 to 39. Do medical supervision three months prior to trainings. It includes also electrocardiogram in quiescent state.
– From 40 to 59. The same as for the previous group, but with some additions. A doctor should make ECG during exercises, at that your pulse must be the same as by aerobic exercises.
– Elder than 60 years. The same as for the previous group, besides it is important to see a doctor before starting the exercises.
Walking can be recommended almost for everybody. More intensive exercises, like jogging, are strictly forbidden for people with following diseases:
1. Heart diseases, which proposed minimum activity.
2. Recent heart attacks. You should wait for at least three months. But later your exercises should be controlled by a doctor.
3. Serious heart failure as a result of rheumatic disease. It is desirable even not to use brisk walking.
4. Certain types of congenital heart defect.
5. Heart, hypertrophied as a result of high blood pressure.
6. Serious cardiac arrhythmia
7. Certain types of diabetes accompanied by
fluctuation of blood sugar.
8. High blood pressure which is resistant to therapy.
9. Obesity. At first you should get rid of excess weight, do walking and only then set about jogging.
10. Some infectious diseases at the exacerbation stage.